Trichomoniasis Symptoms, Risk factors and Complications

Trichomoniasis Symptoms, Risk factors and Complications

The trichomoniasis is STI (a sexually transmitted disease). This is a very common condition. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) has reported that 3.7 million Americans are infected with this condition at any given time [1]. Trichomoniasis is also known as trich. This condition is easily treated. If someone who has trichomoniasis does not get the proper treatment, then this infection can be ongoing. If the affected person uses a treatment, then it is usually cure in a period of week. You can contract trichomoniasis again after treatment if your partner was not treated or if your new partner has trichomoniasis infection. You should reduce your chances of having this infection again by making sure that all of your partners get the proper treatment. Also you should wait for the infection to clear before you become sexually active again. Doctors are recommending waiting for one week after you have taken your medication before you have sex again. Your symptoms will go away after one week. If your symptoms continue, then you should talk with your doctor about getting retested and retreated.


Trichomoniasis Symptoms, Risk factors and Complications

Symptoms: Trichomoniasis often has not symptoms. CDC has said that only 30% of people who suffer from trichomoniasis have reported any symptoms at all [1]. In one study was said that 85% of affected women did not have any symptoms of trichomoniasis [2]. When symptoms happen, then they often begin 5 – 28 days after the person is infected. But also there are some cases when they can take longer period to happen. Here are the most common symptoms of trichomoniasis among women:

  • Pain during urination or sexual intercourse
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Genital redness or swelling
  • Genital burning or itching
  • Vaginal spotting or bleeding
  • Vaginal discharge, which can be white, gray, yellow or green and usually frothy with an unpleasant smell

Here are the most common symptoms of trichomoniasis in men:

  • An urge to urinate frequently
  • Burning during urination or after ejaculation
  • Discharge from the urethra

Causes: Trichomoniasis is caused by a one – celled protozoan organism which is called Trichomonas vaginalis. This organism travels from one person to another through genital contact during the sex. In females, this organism is causing an infection in the urethra, vagina or both. In males, this infection is happening only in the urethra. When this infection begins, it can be easily spread through unprotected genital contact. This infection is not spread through normal physical contact, such as sitting on a toilet seat, sharing dishes, kissing or hugging. Also trichomoniasis cannot be spread through sexual contact which does not involve the genitals.

Trichomoniasis Symptoms, Risk factors and Complications

Trichomoniasis Symptoms, Risk factors and Complications

Risk factors: CDC and the American Sexual Health Association have estimated one million new cases of trichomoniasis each year [3]. It is known that trichomoniasis is more common in women than men [1]. It is estimated that 2.3 million women with the trichomoniasis infection are between the ages of 14 and 49. Also the trichomoniasis is more common in older women than younger women. In one study was shown that women who are over 40 are having two times more chances of being infected as previously was said. There are some factors which can increase your risk of trichomoniasis [4], such as

  • Having sex without a condom
  • Having previous trichomoniasis infections
  • Having a history of other STIs
  • Having multiple sexual partners

Complications: The trichomoniasis infection can make it easier for people to contract other STIs. The genital inflammation which is caused by trichomoniasis can increase your risk of getting HIV along with other STIs. Also it becomes easier for you to spread this virus to other person when you have trichomoniasis [5,6]. Also there are other conditions which can happen with trichomoniasis, such as bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia and gonorrhea. If the infections are left untreated, then this can result in PID (pelvic inflammatory disease). Here are some complications of PID:

  • Chronic abdominal or pelvic pain
  • Infertility
  • Fallopian tube blockage due to scar tissue


[1] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Trichomoniasis – CDC fact sheet. 2017. Retrieved from

[2] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Trichomoniasis statistics. 2017. Retrieved from

[3] Meites E. Trichomoniasis: The “neglected” sexually transmitted disease. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 2013;27(4):755–64.

[4] Ambrozio CL, Nagel AS, Jeske S, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence and risk factors for women in Southern Brazil. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo. 2016;58:61.

[5] Yang S, Zhao W, Wang H, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis infection-associated risk of cervical cancer: A meta-analysis. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2018;228:166-73.

[6] Kissinger P. Trichomonas vaginalis: a review of epidemiologic, clinical and treatment issues. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2015;15:307.


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