Bulky Uterus – Symptoms And Causes

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bulky uterus and cervix

The uterus is small and muscular female reproductive organ, which is responsible for keeping and nourishing the foetus until it is ready for birth. The bulky uterus is a situation in which the uterus is bigger in size than it is supposed to be. The bulky uterus is not a common condition. But, if it is not treated in time, then it can affect the fertility in women. The bulky uterus is the generalized swelling of the uterine wall.

This means that the uterine size is above the normal of the uterus. The woman’s uterus is responsible for holding and providing nourishment until the baby is born. Uterus is shaped like an upside – down pear and it is roughly the size of a fist. The normal dimensions of the uterus are around three to four inches by two and half inches. In some conditions, like pregnancy, uterus can enlarge. The enlargement of the uterus during pregnancy is a normal thing.

The growth of the uterus in size is allowing the fetus to get space and grow inside. If the uterus enlarges because of reasons other than pregnancy, then it is a serious condition and it needs medical attention. A woman with bulky uterus can have some heaviness in the lower abdomen and this condition can also lead to extreme pain and bleeding. [1]

bulky uterus meaning in hindi

Bulky uterus symptoms

There are different causes of the bulky uterus and the symptoms may differ based on the cause of it. The most common symptoms of bulky uterus include:

  • Paleness of the skin and general weakness
  • Constipation
  • Tenderness in breasts
  • Excessive hair growth
  • Acne
  • Gaining mass over the lower abdomen
  • Gaining weight around the lower abdomen
  • Excessive bleeding during periods which may cause anemia
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Frequent and quick urge to urinate
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Bleeding after the menopause
  • Backaches
  • Pressure on the uterus and the surrounding region
  • Swelling and cramping in the legs
  • Heavy bleeding and cramping in the pelvic region
  • Abnormalities in the menstrual cycle

Bulky uterus causes

The bulky uterus can be found in reproductive age group women [2]. The heaviness in the pelvic region and a bulky mass in the lower abdomen are the most common noticeable symptoms. But, the bulky uterus can go unnoticed for a long time as a diagnosis of the enlarged uterus is not expected most of the time. The most common causes for bulky uterus are next:

  • Pregnancy: Pregnancy is the most common cause for the uterus to enlarge. The uterus is house for fetus and it is place where the embryo gets nutrition until it grows on to become a child. As the fetus grows, the uterus also enlarges the uterus can grow from a size of a fist to the size of watermelon. [3]
  • Perimenopause: This is the stage before menopause and fluctuating hormone levels during this stage may cause uterus to enlarge. These cases are temporary and the uterus returns to normal size once the woman has attained menopause. But, there are some cases, in which it may not return to the normal size and it can cause further problems. [4]
  • PCOS: This is a medical condition which can make the uterus grow. This is the after effect of the hormonal imbalance which leads to abnormal menstruation cycle and the shedding of the endometrial lining. The endometrial lining is commonly shed during the menstrual cycle, but in few women, the uterine lining is not shed, which leads to enlarged uterus. This condition affects around 10% of women of childbearing age. [5]
  • Ovarian cysts: These are either solid or fluid – filled sacs which develop on the surface or inside it. Usually, ovarian cysts are asymptomatic and they go on their own. But, in some cases, these structures can lead to various health complications, including the enlargement of the uterus.
  • Endometrial cancer: The uterine cancer can cause the uterus to enlarge, which is resulting in bulky uterus. This problem happens in females that are 50 years or above. Usually, it is caught rapidly in the beginning stages, because the bulky uterus is one of the main symptoms of endometrial cancer. [6]

Complications

The most common complications caused by bulky uterus are next:

  • Infection
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Prolapse
  • Infertility
  • Pain and pressure in the pelvic region

References:

[1] Kido A, Togashi K, Koyama T, et al. Diffusely enlarged uterus: Evaluation with MR imaging. RadioGraphics. 2003;23(6).

[2] Guo XC, Segars JH. The impact and management of fibroids for fertility: an evidence-based approach. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. 2012;39(4):521–33. doi:10.1016/j.ogc.2012.09.005

[3] Tamura H, Kishi H, Kitade M, et al. Complications and outcomes of pregnant women with adenomyosis in Japan. Reproductive Medicine and Biology. 2017;16(4):330–6. doi:10.1002/rmb2.12050

[4] Nicula R, Costin N. Management of endometrial modifications in perimenopausal women. Clujul Medical. 2015;88(2):101–10. doi:10.15386/cjmed-421

[5] Ndefo UA, Eaton A, Green MR. Polycystic ovary syndrome: A review of treatment options with a focus on pharmacological approaches. Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 2013;38(6):336-8,348,355.

[6] Wu Y, Sun W, Liu H, Zhang D. Age at menopause and risk of developing endometrial cancer: A meta-analysis. BioMed Research International. 2019.

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