Bruise is skin injury which is resulting in discoloration of the skin. People often think that they are having blue or black mark near the surface of the skin. This is results from the damaged blood cells which beneath the skin are collecting and they are forming marks.
Bruise – Causes & Symptoms
Causes for a bruise: In the most cases this skin injury is happening as result of bumping. This means that when people bump into something or something bumps into them, then they will have bruise.
- In most cases this skin injury is happening to people who are constantly exercising such as weight lifters and athletes. In these kinds of people, bruise is result from the microscopic tears which are collecting in the blood vessels under the skin. 
- If you have frequently bleeding gums or nosebleed, then this disease is happening unexplained. In this situation bruise is not having the real cause for its happening. If you have bleeding gums and nosebleed, then you are having bleeding disorders.
- People who are taking medicines for thinning the blood are having the most chances to have this disorder. 
- Also people who are in their adult ages are having increased risk having bruise because as they are aging their skin becomes thinner. Their tissues which are supporting the underlying blood vessels are becoming more fragile as they are aging. 
- If you usually bump into a bedpost, then you are having increased risk to have unexplained bruises.
Symptoms of bruise: Here are the symptoms of bruises:
- When you have a fresh bruise, then your bruise is red. After few hours you will notice that your bruise is dark purple or blue. After few days you will notice that your bruise is green or yellow. When your bruise has passed these levels it will be healed.
- In the first days this skin injury is painful and in most cases bruise is tender. You should not be worried about your situation because the pain will disappear as the bruise color fades.
- Also you should not be worried from infections because when you have bruises, your skin is not broken.
If you are feeling some of the mentioned symptoms, then you should visit your doctor.
When to see a doctor? In these cases you should visit your doctor:
- If you have noticed that your bruise is extremely painful and you have swelling, then you should visit your doctor.
- Also if you are using blood thinning medication for your medical condition, then you should visit your doctor and talk about your situation.
- If your bruise is happening with no reason or you are having bruises easily, then you must talk with your doctor.
- If your bruise is under fingernail or toenail and this kind of bruise is very painful, then you should talk with your doctor about those kinds of bruises.
- If your bruise is not gone after two weeks or it is not improved its condition, then you should visit your doctor.
- If you think that your bone is broken when you are having bruise, then you must not risk any more and immediately ask your doctor about its help.
- Bruises which are happening on the eyes or on the head are reason for people to feel anxiety.
Your doctor can ask you some of the next questions:
- When is the first time when you have felt bruise?
- Are you have often bruises?
- Have you ever taken medicines for blood thinning?
- Is your bruise lasting more than two weeks?
- Do you know the reason for your bruises?
- Is it your bruise painful?
- Are you having swelling along with bruises?
If you are feeling pain with your bruises or you have swelling along bruises, then your doctor will make X-ray test because he or she wants to be sure if there is not broken bone. If your bruise is happening constantly, then your doctor will make blood tests because she or he wants to be sure that you are not having any kind of blood disorder. Also your doctor will know if you have been victim of physical abuse because in those cases bruises are lasting more time and they are easily noticeable. Also if you have mark (in the most cases if you have black mark) on your head and you cannot remember the reason which have caused it, then you must have serious damage. This is reason to talk with your doctor about your condition. Your doctor will make tests to be sure for the reason of your bruises. [4,5]
Above are some of the symptoms of bruise
 DeAngelis JP, Spindler KP. Traumatic bone bruises in the athlete’s knee. SAGE Journals. 2010;2(5):398-402.
 Frankel Cardiovascular Center (Michigan Medicine). Taking care of bruises: For people taking blood thinners. Retrieved from www.med.umich.edu/1libr/AntiCoag/BruisesBloodThinners
 Mosqueda L, Burnight K, Liao S. Bruising in the geriatric population. 2006. Retrieved from www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/214649
 Ballas M, Kraut EH. Bleeding and bruising: A diagnostic work-up. American Family Physician. 2008;77(8):1117-24.
 Saxena D, Nigam M, Mishra PK, Tomar J. Assessment of the age of bruise by their healing. Indian Journal of Forensic and Community Medicine. 2018;5(2).