Brain Damage – Types, Causes and Symptoms

brain damage

Brain damage is when the brain cells started deterioration or destruction. The number of people who are having this disease is increasing. Brain damage can be caused by a tumor, trauma, stroke and other types of illnesses. Also in  many medical studies it is shown that the number of people who are dying because of their brain damages is increasing. [1]

Types of brain damage: When people are traumatic brain injuries that means that they are having head injuries as well. But when people are having head injuries that mean the head injury is not always brain injury. There are two types of brain damages which can affect in the people’s lives because they cannot do everyday activities.

  • Traumatic brain injury: This type of brain injury is happening when an external force is damaging the brain. For example, this type of brain damage can be caused by blow to the head. When this is happening to your head, then your brain is moving inside the skull or in some cases is damaging the skull. [2,3]
  • Acquired Brain Injury: this type of brain injury is happening at cellular levels which means in the most cases this type of brain damage is caused by the pressure of the brain. This kind of pressure can be caused by a stroke, neurological illness or by a tumor.

The both types of brain damages can appear after the birth. Also there is another type of brain damage which is not taking part of the previous brain injuries. This type of brain damage is known as congenital brain damage. In some cases the brain damage can be reason for damaging the whole brain, but in other cases the brain damage can occur just in one small area which is an example when the bullet enters the head. In this case the bullet is damaging one part of the brain. When people are diagnosed with DAI (diffuse axonal injury), then they are having nerves which are damaged of the both sides of the head. When the nerves are damaged, then they are spreading in the whole body which can be reason for global nerve damage. People who are suffering from mild brain injury are feeling nausea, headaches, memory problems and confusion. Those are temporary symptoms. People who are diagnosed with moderate brain injuries are having symptoms which usually are lasting more than the symptoms of the mild brain injuries. In the both cases people can approve their condition but what is important to know is that people who are having mild brain injury will have constant problems in the period of one year.

Brain Damage – Causes and Symptoms

brain tumor home remedy damage symptomCauses of brain damage: When in the prolonged period your brain is starved of oxygen, then this can be cause for brain injury. Also this type of disease can be caused by many conditions, injuries or illnesses. Males from 15-24 are having increased risk having brain damage because in that period men are hyperactive. [4]

  1. Traumatic brain injury: The next causes can be reason for brain injury: [1,2]
  • Sports injuries
  • Physical violence
  • Car accidents
  • Falls or accidents
  • Blows to the head
  1. Acquired brain injury: Here are the reasons which can be cause for acquired brain injury:
  • Infection
  • Abuse or illegal drugs [5]
  • Stroke
  • Poisoning or exposure to toxic substances
  • Heart attacks
  • Aneurysms
  • Choking, drowning or strangulation
  • Neurological illness
  • Tumor

Symptoms of the brain damage: Here are the symptoms of the brain injury:

  1. Cognitive symptoms:
  • Memory loss
  • Difficulty when the information should be processed
  • People with brain damage are not able to understand the abstract concepts
  • Difficulty in expressing thoughts
  • Impaired decision making ability
  • Difficulties when the information is received and needs to be processed
  • Shortened attention span
  1. Perceptual symptoms:
  • Balance issues
  • Disorders of smell and taste
  • Spatial disorientation
  • Heightened sensitivity to pain
  • Change in vision, hearing or sense of touch
  • Inability to sense time
  1. Physical symptoms:
  • Tremors
  • Slurred speech
  • Paralysis
  • Persistent headaches
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Seizures
  • Extreme physical fatigue
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Extreme mental fatigue
  • Sleep disorders
  1. Behavioral/emotional symptoms:
  • Sluggishness
  • Impatience and irritability
  • It is noticed in people diagnosed with brain damage that they are having increased aggressive behavior
  • Reduced tolerance for stressful situations
  • Heightened or flattened emotions or reactions
  • Denial of disability


[1] Kitzinger J, Kitzinger C. The ‘window of opportunity’ for death after severe brain injury: family experiences. Sociology of Health & Illness. 2013;35(7):1095-112.

[2] Peterson AB, Kegler SR. Deaths from fall-related traumatic brain injury — United States, 2008–2017. Weekly. 2020;69(9):225-30. Retrieved from

[3] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. TBI Data and statistics. 2019. Retrieved from

[4] National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Traumatic brain injury: Hope through research. Retrieved from

[5] University of Florida. Club drugs inflict damage similar to traumatic brain injury. Science Daily. 2007.


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