Cardiovascular disease – Symptoms, causes,types & risk factors

Cardiovascular disease

The cardiovascular diseases are involving the heart, the blood vessels or both. The circulatory or cardiovascular system is supplying the body with blood. It consists of capillaries, veins, arteries and heart. There are different types of cardiovascular disease but the symptoms, prevention and treatment often overlap. The high blood pressure is one of the biggest risk factors for the cardiovascular disease. Aneurysm, stroke and heart attack are major diseases which are related life – threatening events.

Exercise and balanced diet are some things which can help in the prevention of this disease. The treatment of cardiovascular disease will depend on the type of condition which person has. The most types of cardiovascular disease are preventable. It is very important to reduce the salt intake; eat fresh fruits and vegetables; consume less alcohol and tobacco; avoid sedentary lifestyle, particularly among children. When children have bad habits, then it will not lead to cardiovascular diseases while they are still young but this can lead to accumulation of problems which continue into adulthood which will result in a greater probability of having this disease later in the life.



Cardiovascular disease

It is known that there are different types of cardiovascular disease and the symptoms will vary which depends on the specific type of disease that a patient has. The most typical symptoms of an underlying cardiovascular issue include:

  • Cold sweat
  • Light – headed or faint
  • Nausea and fatigue
  • Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea
  • Pain or discomfort in the arms, in the left shoulder, elbows, jaw or back
  • You can have pains or pressure in the chest, which may indicate angina

The symptoms vary and they are specific to the condition and the individual but the above mentioned symptoms are the most common.


The atherosclerosis is a condition when fatty deposits accumulate in the arteries and this is one of the most important causes for the cardiovascular disease. Also, the damage to the circulatory system can result from diabetes and as the result of other conditions, such as an infection, a virus or a structural problem which the person was born with. This often involves the high blood pressure but this can be a cause and a result of this disease.


The cardiac of heart – related diseases and conditions include:

  • A rheumatic heart disease, which can be a complication of strep throat
  • Pulmonary stenosis
  • Mitral valve prolapse
  • Mitral regurgitation
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • A heart failure, when the heart does not work properly
  • Heart attack
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy
  • A coronary artery disease (CAD), which affects the arteries that feed the heart muscle
  • A congenital heart disease, when a problem with heart function or structure is present from birth
  • An arrhythmia, where there is an irregular heartbeat or heart rhythm
  • Angina, considered both a cardiac and vascular disease

Vascular diseases are diseases which are affecting the blood vessels – the capillaries, veins or arteries and they include:

  • Blood clotting disorders
  • Venous blood clots
  • Stroke, a type of cerebrovascular disease
  • Peripheral venous disease
  • Buerger’s disease
  • Raynaud’s disease (Raynaud’s phenomenon)
  • Renal artery disease
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Aneurysm
  • Peripheral artery (arterial) disease

Risk factors

There are some studies in which are said that the lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease is more than 50% for both men and women. Also, in this study was added that even among those who have few or no cardiovascular risk factors, the risk is still more than 30%. Here are some factors which increase the risk of getting this disease:

  • COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder) and reduced lung function
  • Air pollution
  • Stress
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Physical inactivity
  • You are having a diet that is high in fat combined with carbohydrates
  • Diabetes
  • High blood cholesterol (hyperlipidemia)
  • Lack of sleep
  • Smoking
  • Radiation therapy
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)

Those people, who have one cardiovascular risk factor, often have one or two others too. Those people who have obesity often have high blood pressure, diabetes type 2 and high blood cholesterol. Hypertension and atherosclerosis seem to be the most common risk factors for cardiovascular disease.


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