Basal cell carcinoma is one type of skin cancer. This skin begins in the basal cells in your body. These are type of skin cells. The skin is producing them as the old ones die off. Basal cell carcinoma can have many types of forms, but usually appears at waxy bump. This type of cancer in the most cases is occurring in the part of the skin which is exposed to the sun such as neck and face. In the most cases basal cell carcinoma is caused by long-term exposure to UV radiation which is caused from the sunlight. If you avoid the sun when it is hottest and to use creams with UV factor, then this can help you against this type of cancer. [1,2]
Basal Cell Carcinoma – Symptoms and Causes
Symptoms: Basal cell carcinoma usually happens on the parts which are exposed to the sun such as face and neck. In rare cases basal cell carcinoma occurs on the legs and trunk. Also is rare case to happen the basal cell carcinoma on the parts which are not exposed to sun, but there are possibilities to happen this situation. One of the signs that you have basal cell carcinoma is a sore that won’t heal. Or in some cases these sores repeatedly bleeds and scabs over. Basal cell carcinoma is also having these symptoms :
- A scaly, flat, fresh-colored or brown patch on your chest or back. In some cases these patches can grow very large.
- A waxy or pearly white bump with visible blood vessels on your ears, neck and face. In some cases this bump can bleed and on that place you can see a crust. People which are having dark skin this type of cancer can be brown or black.
- More rarely this type of cancer can have a white, waxy scar. Basal cell carcinoma is easy to diagnosed. This type of cancer is also known for its name morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.
When to see a doctor? If you have some of these symptoms, then you should visit your doctor. You must talk with your doctor for the symptoms that are worrying you. Your doctor can send you to dermatologist which is specialized in skin disease. Your doctor can ask you about your medical history. You should type about all types of conditions that you had in the past even in your younger ages. If you have worked on sunlight and you have been under UV light, then you must tell your doctor about this condition. You should also tell your doctor what kind of medicines you have taken in the past or the natural remedies that you have taken. Your doctor can ask you the next questions:
- When is the first time you felt these symptoms?
- Had some family member in the past this type of cancer?
- Are you going out when is the midday sun?
- Have you used some kind of medicines for your condition?
- Have you used home remedies and natural cures for your health condition?
- Do you smoke or have you ever smoked? How much?
- Are you using cosmetics which are protecting you from UV radiation?
- Have you taken some medications to improve your immune system?
- Have you worked in sun?
- Have you been exposed on sun for long time?
This disease is happening when one of the skin’s basal cells had developed in its DNA. These cells are found in the bottom line of the epidermis. Epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. Basal cells are producing new cells. When the new cells are produced, they are pushing the older cells toward the skin’s surface. In the skin’s surface the old cells are dying and they are sloughed off. This process is controlled by the basal cell’s DNA. This mutation is causing to the basal cells to multiply rapidly and they are continuing their growing till they die. In some rare cases abnormal cells can form a tumor. In the most cases DNA in the basal cells is damaged from the high UV radiation found in the sunlight and in the commercial creams with not proven ingredients [1,2]. The toxic substances in the air or if you are having or you had a health condition that have weaken your immune system is another reason for basal cell carcinoma. Try to avoid the midday sun because in that period UV radiation is highest and you are most likely to have this disease. Also you should wear clothes that can protect you from the UV radiation. Before you start using some kind of cosmetic product you should consult with your doctor. [4,5]
 Watson M, Holman DM, Maguire-Eisen M. Ultraviolet radiation exposure and its impact on skin cancer risk. Seminars in Oncology Nursing. 2016;32(3):241–54.
 Situm M, Buljan M, Bulat V, et al. The role of UV radiation in the development of basal cell carcinoma. Collegium Antropologicum. 2008;32(Suppl2):167-70.
 Sobanko JF, Lynm C, Rosenbach M. Basal cell carcinoma. JAMA Dermatology. 2013;149(6):766.
 Drakaki E, Dessinioti C, Antoniou CV. Air pollution and the skin. Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2014.
 Matthews NH, Fitch K, Li WQ, et al. Exposure to trace elements and risk of skin cancer: A systematic review of epidemiologic studies. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2019;28(1):3–21.