Bladder infection – Signs, Symptoms and Risk factors

bladder infection


Bladder infection

Bladder infection also known as Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) or cystitis is a bacterial infection that can happen in the organs of the urinary tract such as kidneys, bladder, urethra and ureters. In the most cases this infection is happening suddenly, but also there are cases in which bladder infection is caused by chronic disease. The best way to prevent this disease is to have regular doctor’s visits. Men and women are having chances to get this disease. In the most cases women are suffering from bladder infection but also men cannot be 100% sure that they will not have this infection. [1,2]

Symptoms and signs of bladder infection in men

Here are the some of the signs and symptoms which can happen in men: [2]

  • Low-grade fever
  • Blood in urine (this condition is known as hematuria)
  • Frequent urination
  • Tingling or burning sensation during or just after urination (dysuria)
  • Trouble urinating, especially if you have a problem with your prostate
  • Cloudy urine with a strong odor
  • Strong, persistent urge to urinate (urgency)

Risk factors for bladder infection in men:

  • Kidney stones [3]
  • Having a recent urinary tract procedure involving instrumentation, such as a small camera to examine your bladder and urethra (cystoscopy) or insertion of a tube to drain your bladder (catherization)
  • Abnormal narrowing of the urethra (urethral structure)
  • An enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BHP)

In the most cases the remedy for bladder infection in men are antibiotics. But if you have some of the mentioned symptoms, then you should visit your doctor. When the bladder infection is in the early stage is easier to be diagnosed and easier to be treated properly.

Risk factors which can increase the chances in women to get bladder infection: [4]

  • When bacteria enters the urethra during sexual intercourse
  • An abnormal urinary tract function or shape
  • Kidney or bladder stones [3]
  • An inherited risk of developing bladder infections (genetic predisposition)
  • Changes in estrogen levels during menopause

Signs and symptoms of bladder infection in both sexes: In the most cases these are the signs and symptoms of the bladder infection (the most common signs and symptoms of bladder infection) [1]:

  • Foul-smelling urine
  • Bloody or cloudy urine
  • Burning or pain when urinating
  • Cramping or pressure in the lower abdomen or lower back
  • Urinating more often than usual
  • A frequent sensation of having to urinate, which is called urgency

Also this infection can cause back pain. If you are not having muscular back pain, then in some cases when you have bladder infection you can feel pain on the both sides of your back. Also if you have kidney infection, then this infection can cause low fewer. [5]bladder infectionWhen to see a doctor? If you have some of the next symptoms:

  • Fever and chills,
  • Back or side pain,
  • Nausea and vomiting,

then you must visit your doctor. Also you should visit your doctor if you have noticed some of the previous mentioned symptoms such as blood in urine, frequent urination, painful urination etc. If you have taken some medicines or some home remedies for your condition and the signs and symptoms have appeared again, then you must talk with your doctor about your condition. When you have notices some changes in your urination, then you must talk with your doctor. Your doctor will refer you to nephrologist or urologist. Before you have meeting with this doctor, you should ask your doctor if you should take sample of urine which should be tested. You should write about all your symptoms that you have experienced. Also you should tell the doctor if you have some diseases in the past. If the answer is yes, then you should tell your doctor what kind of medicines you have used or what kind of home remedies have you taken.  Your doctor will make test to be sure in which level is your bladder infection. Also your doctor can ask you some of the next questions:

  • When is the first time you have started to feel the symptoms?
  • Are you sexually active?
  • Are you using contraception during the sexual intercourse? What kind of contraception are you using?
  • Have you used some medications for your condition?
  • How often do you have your symptoms?
  • Do you have back pain?
  • Is this your first time to have bladder infection?
  • Have some member from your family have bladder infection?

Above are some of the signs and symptoms of bladder infection


[1] Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M, Hultgren SJ. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2015;13(5):269–84.

[2] Vasudevan R. Urinary tract infection: An overview of the infection and the associated risk factors. Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation. 2014;1(2):42-54.

[3] Schwaderer AL, Wolfe AJ. The association between bacteria and urinary stones. Annals of Translational Medicine. 2017;5(2):32.

[4] Minardi D, d’Anzeo G, Cantoro D, et al. Urinary tract infections in women: etiology and treatment options. International Journal of General Medicine. 2011;4:333–43.

[5] Rosen JM, Klumpp DJ. Mechanisms of pain from urinary tract infection. International Journal of Urology. 2014;21(1):26–32.


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